Most bookshelf speakers, even budget ones will reproduce the range of 150 Hz to the limits of normal hearing 20 kHz, you would usually expect them to be able to handle much lower frequencies 45 Hz would be a standard cut-off. Better; 35 Hz to 25 kHz is not uncommon among medium/high-end speakers available from high-street stores. A flat response (no more than 3 db deviation across the whole range is optimal for faithful reproduction without the speaker adding colour to the sound. See this blog for more details on response and range.
As to powered speakers, a brand new pair from a reputable manufacturer such as Sony (the cheaper end of the better ones) shouldn't break the bank. Alternatively a pair of compact powered speakers (one is slaved to the other's power supply) such as these (commercial link, no affiliation) can be found on E-Bay for approximately £85 (~$100). Their response is down to 80 Hz, within the spec you asked for and they can be driven by a low-level signal such as a tablet or laptop.
Since Humpbacks can produce frequencies of 20 Hz (right a the limit of human hearing), you would likely need either to add a sub-woofer or to disregard the potential sound they might produce, and use visualisations from an oscilloscope or frequency-analyser software.
The second-hand market provided myself with a powered sub-woofer, (Paradigm - commercial link, no affiliation) for less than £100 ($130), well worth exploring your local papers and bazaars as the new product is upward of £800 ($1000). Worth noting that the frequency response is on a little plaque on the back of the unit - handy to check when buying.
An alternative offering greater flexibility regarding speaker choice would be to invest modestly in a compact amplifier unit such as this that can be powered by a single or duel 12v battery, ideal for boat or other vehicle.
Worth bearing in mind that outdoors - say on-deck, the sound will be attenuated considerably and need to be boosted in order to appreciate particularly the low frequencies. Also, check the response of your amplifier covers the range you need, most will. The hydrophone should already be of a specialist design to be used for whale song and cover the range.